List of state leaders in the 16th century

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Lists of state leaders by century:
See also:
Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Timelines:
State leaders:
Decades:
Categories: BirthsDeaths
EstablishmentsDisestablishments

This is a list of state leaders in the 16th century (1501–1600) AD, except for the leaders within the Holy Roman Empire, and the leaders within South Asia.

These polities are generally sovereign states, but excludes minor dependent territories, whose leaders can be found listed under territorial governors in the 16th century. For completeness, these lists can include colonies, protectorates, or other dependent territories that have since gained sovereignty.

Africa[edit]

Africa: Central[edit]

Angola

  • Kulembe, King (1560s)
  • Kinguri, King (1560s)
Kilukeni dynasty
Kwilu dynasty
Colony, 1575–1951
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Cameroon

Chad

  • Birni Besse, Mbangi (1522–1536)
  • Lubatko, Mbangi (1536–1548)
  • Malo, Mbangi (1548–1568)
  • ‘Abdallah, Mbangi (1568–1608)

Congo, Democratic Republic of the

  • Lushanjela Shanga, Nyim (16th century)
  • Bo Shanga, Nyim (16th century)
  • Shamba Bolongongo, Nyim (c.1600)

Congo, Republic of the

São Tomé and Príncipe

Colony, 1470–1951
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Africa: East[edit]

Great Lakes area

Burundi
  • Ntare I Rushatsi Cambarantama, King (c.1530–c.1550)
  • Mwezi I Baridamunka, King (c.1550–c.1580)
  • Mutaga I Mutabazi, King (c.1580–c.1600)
Rwanda
South Sudan
  • Nyikang, Rädh (c.1490–1517)
  • Odaagø Ocøllø, Rädh (c.1600–1635)
Uganda

Horn of Africa area

Eritrea
Ethiopia
  • Sadi, King (1495–1530)
  • Madi Gafine/Gafo, King (1530–1565)
  • Bong-he, King (1565–1605)
Somalia
  • Garad Ali Dable, Sultan (1491–1503)
  • Garad Liban, Sultan (1503–1525)
  • Garad Yuusuf, Sultan (1525–1555)
  • Garad Mohamud III, Sultan (1555–1585)
  • Garad Abdale, Sultan (1585–1612)

Madagascar

Africa: Northcentral[edit]

Ifriqiya

Africa: Northeast[edit]

Egypt

Sudan

Africa: Northwest[edit]

Morocco

Africa: South[edit]

Angola

as an independent state

Mozambique

Colony, 1498–1972
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Zimbabwe

  • Changamire II, King (1494–1530)
  • Changamire Tumbare, King (1530–c.1660)

Africa: West[edit]

Benin

  • Ozolua, Oba (1480–1504)[8]
  • Esigie, Oba (1504–1547)
  • Orhogbua, Oba (1547–1580)
  • Ehengbuda, Oba (1580–1602)

Burkina Faso

  • Gima, Nunbado (1470–1520)
  • Gori, Nunbado (1520–1553)
  • Bogora, Nunbado (1553–1571)
  • Kampadiboaghi, Nunbado (1571–1615)

Cape Verde

Colony, 1462–1951
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Ghana

Guinea-Bissau

Colony, 1474–1951
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Mali

Niger

  • Muhammad Gao, Askiya (1592)
  • Nuh I, Askiya (c.1592–1599)[11]
  • al-Mustafa, Askiya (c.1600)

Nigeria

Senegal

  • Malaw tane Joof, (variation: Maléotane Diouf - French spelling in Senegal), Maad Saloum (1567)[14]

Americas[edit]

Americas: North[edit]

Canada

French colony, 1535–1763
For details see France under western Europe

Mexico

Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire
Spanish Colony, 1521–1821
For details see Spain in southwest Europe

Americas: South[edit]

Brazil

Portuguese colony, 1500/1534–1808
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Chile

Spanish Colony, 1541–1818
For details see Spain in southwest Europe

Colombia

Peru

Spanish Colony, 1542–1824
For details see Spain in southwest Europe

Asia[edit]

Asia: Central[edit]

Kazakhstan

  • Ahmad Alaq, Khan of Eastern Moghulistan (1487–1503)
  • Mahmud, Khan of Western Moghulistan (1487–1508)
  • Mansur, Khan of Eastern Moghulistan (1503–1508), of All Moghulistan (1508–1514), of Eastern Moghulistan (1514–1548)
  • Shah, Khan of Eastern Moghulistan (1543–1560)
  • Muhammad ibn Mansur, Khan of Eastern Moghulistan (1570)
  • Šamba, Khan (1492–1493, 1497–1505)
  • Beyazıt, Khan (1505–1513)

Russia

  • Abalak of Sibir, Khan (1496–1501)
  • Muhammad Taibuga, Khan (1495–1502)
  • Aguish, Khan (1502–1503)
  • Kuluk Sultan, Khan (1502–1530)
  • Qasim, Khan (1504–1530)
  • Yadgar bin Qasim, Khan (1530–1563)
  • Kuchum, Khan (1563–1598)

Tajikistan

Tibet

Uzbekistan

The battle between Shah Ismail I and Muhammad Shaybani in 1510.
  • Ilbars I, Khan (1511–1518)
  • Sultan Haji, Khan (1518–1519)
  • Hasan Quli, Khan (1519–1524)
  • Sufyan, Khan (1529–1535)
  • Bujugha, Khan (1524–1529)
  • Avnik, Khan (1535–1538)
  • Qal, Khan (1539–1549)
  • Aqatay, Khan (1549–1557)
  • Dust Muhammad, Khan (1557–1558)
  • Haji Muhammad I, Khan (1558–1602)

Asia: East[edit]

China: Ming dynasty

Japan

Tributary state of the Ming dynasty, 1429–1644

Korea

Mongolia

Asia: Southeast[edit]

Brunei

Cambodia

Indonesia

Indonesia: Java
  • Sri Baduga, Maharaja (1482–1521)
  • Prabu Surawisesa Jayaperkosa, Maharaja (1521–1535)
  • Ratu Dewata, Maharaja (1535–1543)
  • Ratu Sakti, Maharaja (1543–1551)
  • Nilakendra, Maharaja (1551–1567)
  • Raja Mulya, Maharaja (1567–1579)
  • Raden Arya Wilatikta, King (fl.1513)
  • Kyai Arya Ngrasena, King (early 16th century)
  • Kyai Arya Gegelang, King (early 16th century)
  • Kyai Arya Batubang, King (mid 16th century)
  • Pangeran Arya Balewot, King (mid 16th century)
  • Pangeran Sekar Tanjung, King (late 16th century)
  • Pangeran Ngangsar, King (late 16th century)
  • Pangeran Arya Pamalad, King (fl.1587)
  • Arya Salempe, King (16th/17th century)
  • Sunan Giri, Sultan (1485–1506)
  • Sunan Dalem, Sultan (1506–1545/46)
  • Sunan Seda Margi, Sultan (1545/46–1548)
  • Sunan Prapen, Sultan (1548–1605)
  • Kyai Sinuhun Ngampeldenta, Adipati (fl.c.1500)[26]
  • Pecat Tanda Terung, Adipati (fl.c.1513)
  • Pangeran Tundungmusuh, Adipati (16th century)
  • Pangeran Lena, Adipati (16th century)
  • Pangeran Jebuk, Adipati (16th century)
  • Pangeran Wanakrama, Adipati (late 16th century)
  • Panembahan Rama, Adipati (16th/17th century)
  • Pangeran Surabaya, Adipati (16th/17th century)
  • Bima Koncar/Minak Sumedhe, King (15th/16th century)[27]
  • Menak Pentor, King (fl.1513)
  • Santaguna, King (fl.c.1575)
  • N.N., King (fl.1588)
  • N.N., King (?–1597)
  • Menak Sepetak, King (fl.1513)[28]
  • Adipati Dengkol, King (16th century)
  • Sunan Gunungjati, Sultan (1479–1568)
  • Fatahillah, General (1568–1570)
  • Panembahan Ratu, Sultan (c.1570–1649)
  • Ki Pragalba, Sultan (?–1531)[30]
  • Raden Pratanu, Sultan (1531–1592/96)
  • Raden Kara, Sultan (1592/6–1621)
  • Raden Tumenggung Kanduruwan, Sultan (?–1579)[31]
  • Pangeran Ellor I, Sultan (c.1579–?)
  • Pangeran Wetan, Sultan (c.1600)
Indonesia: Sumatra
  • Adlullah, Sultan (1495–1506)
  • Muhammad Syah III, Sultan (1506–1507)
  • Abdullah, Sultan (1507–1509)
  • Ahmad V, Sultan (1509–1514)
  • Zainal Abidin IV, Sultan (1514–1517)
  • Panglima Dewa Shahdan, Raja (1568–1580)
  • Panglima Dewa Sakti, Raja (1580–1612)
Indonesia: Kalimantan (Borneo)
  • Suriansyah, Sultan (1520–1546)
  • Rahmatullah, Sultan (1546–1570)
  • Hidayatullah I, Sultan (1570–1595)
  • Mustain Billah, Sultan (1595–1638)
  • Datuk Mencang (Seorang bangsawan dari Brunei), beristrikan Asung Luwan, ruler (1555–1594)
  • Singa Laut, Menantu dari Datuk Mencang, ruler (1594–1618)
  • Mangkubumi, Maharaja (15th/16th century)
  • Tumenggung, Maharaja (?–1526)
  • Timbang Paseban, Governor, Sultan (1600–1609)
  • Abang Samat Semah, Prince (?)
  • Abang Ismail Zubair Mail Jubairi Irawan II, Prince (?)
  • Abang Suruh, Prince of Sintang, son of Abang Ismail Zubair Mail Jubairi Irawan II, Prince (?)
  • Abang Tembilang Ari, Prince (?)
  • Abang Pencin Pontin, Prince (c.1600–1643)
Indonesia: Sulawesi
  • Batara Gowa, King (15th/16th century)
  • Pakere Tau Tunijallo ri Passukki, King (c.1510)
  • Tumapa'risi', King (c.1510–1546)
  • Lakiung, King (1546–1565)
  • Marompa, King (1565)
  • Bontolangkasa, King (late 16th century)
  • Tuni Pasulu, King (c.1593)
  • Alau'ddin, Sultan (1593–1639)
  • Risaolebbi, Datu (1465–1507)
  • Dewaraja, Datu (1507–1541)
  • Tosangkawana, Datu (1541–1556)
  • Maoge, Datu (1556–1571)
  • E Tenri Rawe’, Datu (1571–1587)
  • Andi Pattiware’ Daeng Parabung, Datu (1587–1615)
Indonesia: Lesser Sunda Islands
Indonesia: Maluku Islands
  • Muhammad Bakir, Sultan (c.1500)[32]
  • Zainal Abidin, Sultan (pre-1512–c.1557)
  • Bayansirullah/ Dom João, Sultan (c.1557–1578/79)
  • Dom Henrique, Sultan (1578/79–1581)
  • Alauddin I, Sultan (1581–c.1609)
  • Kaicil Yusuf, Sultan (fl.1514–1521)[33]
  • Kaicil Firuz Alauddin, Sultan (c.1532–1536)
  • Katarabumi, Sultan (1536–1552)
  • Kaicili Guzarate, Sultan (1552–?)
  • Jamaluddin/Ciri Leliati, Sultan (1495–1512)[34]
  • Al-Mansur I, Sultan (before 1512–1526)
  • Amiruddin Iskandar Dul-Karna’in, Sultan (1526–c.1560)
  • Kie Mansur, Sultan (c.1560–?)
  • Kaicili Bungua, Sultan (fl.1570)
  • Gaua, Iskandar Sani, Sultan (pre-1582)
  • Gapi Baguna, Sultan (pre-1582–1599)
  • Mole Majimu, Sultan (1599–1627)
  • Bayanullah, Sultan (1500–1522)[citation needed]
  • Hidayatullah, Sultan (1522–1529)
  • Abu Hayat, Sultan (1529–1533)
  • Tabariji, Sultan (1533–1534)
  • Khairun Jamil, Sultan (1535–1570)
  • Babullah Datu Shah, Sultan (1570–1583)
  • Said Barakat Shah, Sultan (1583–1606)

Laos

Malaysia

Peninsular Malaysia
Jambi dynasty
Champa dynasty
  • Bendaharas –
  • Muzaffar Riayat Shah I, Sultan (1528–1549)
  • Mansur Shah I, Sultan (1549–1577)
  • Ahmad Tajuddin Shah, Sultan (1577–1584)
  • Tajul Ariffin Shah, Sultan (1584–1594)
  • Alauddin Riayat Shah I, Sultan (1594–1603)
Malaysian Borneo

Myanmar / Burma

  • Ai Lao (艾劳), Saopha (1474–1501)
  • Sao Naojiang, Saopha (1501–1503)

Philippines

  • Siagu, Rajah (?–1521)
  • Tagkan, Lakan (15th/16th century)
  • Palaba, ruler (mid 16th century)
  • Laboy, ruler (mid 16th century)
  • Kalamayin, Rajah (1570s)
  • Dailisan, Datu (c.1563)
  • Padojinog, Datu (15th/16th century)
  • Kabnayag, Datu (?–1565)
  • Lubay, Datu (16th century)
  • Parang the Limp, Rajah (15th/16th century)
  • Humabon, Rajah (c.1521)
  • Tupas, Rajah (?–1565)
Colony, 1565–1901
For details see Spain in southwest Europe

Thailand

Suphannaphum dynasty
Sukhothai dynasty
  • Mahathammarachathirat, King of Sukhothai (1548–1569), King of Ayutthaya (1569–1590)
  • Naresuan, King of Sukhothai (1570–1590), King of Ayutthaya (1590–1605)
Mangrai dynasty
  • Kaeo or Mueangkaeo, King (1495–1525)
  • Ket or Muangketklao, King (1525–1538, 1543–1545)
  • Saikham, King (1538–1543)
  • Chiraprapha, Queen (1545–1546)
  • Setthathirat, King (1546–1547)
  • Mekuti, King (1551–1558)
Burmese rule

Vietnam

Asia: South[edit]

Asia: West[edit]

Iran

Oman

Turkey

Yemen

  • Badr ibn 'Abdallah, Sultan (c.1516–c.1565)

Europe[edit]

Europe: Balkans[edit]

  • Vavila, Prince-bishop (1516–1520)
  • German II, Prince-bishop (1520–1530)
  • Pavle, Prince-bishop (1530–1532)
  • Vasilije I, Prince-bishop (1532–1540)
  • Nikodim, Prince-bishop (1540)
  • Romi, Prince-bishop (1540–1559)
  • Makarije, Prince-bishop (1560–1561)
  • Ruvim I, Prince-bishop (1561–1569)
  • Pahomije II, Prince-bishop (1569–1579)
  • Gerasim, Prince-bishop (1575–1582)
  • Venijamin, Prince-bishop (1582–1591)
  • Nikanor and Stefan, Prince-bishop (1591–1593)
  • Ruvim II, Prince-bishop (1593–1636)

Croatia

part of the Habsburg Monarchy, also part of the Lands of the Hungarian Crown
House of Habsburg

Europe: British Isles[edit]

England and Ireland

Scotland

  • James IV, King (1488–1513)
  • James V, King (1513–1542)
  • Mary I, Queen (1542–1567)
  • James VI, King of Scotland (1567–1625), King of England and Ireland (1603–1625)

Ireland

  • Rossa mac Maghnusa, King (1497–1513)
  • Reamonn mac Glaisne, King (1513–1521)
  • Glaisne Óg mac Reamoinn, King (1521–1551?)
  • Art Maol mac Reamoinn, King (1551–1560)
  • Aodh mac Briain, King (1560–1562)
  • Art Ruadh mac Briain, King (1562–1578)
  • Sir Rossa Buidhe mac Airt, King (1579–1589)
  • Hugh Roe McMahon, King (1589–1590)
  • John, son of Cathal O'Reilly, ruler (1491–1510)
  • Hugh, ruler (1514)
  • Owen, ruler (1526)
  • Farrell, ruler (1526–1536)
  • Maelmordha, ruler (1537–1565)
  • Hugh Conallagh O'Reilly, ruler (1583)
  • John Roe, ruler (1583–1596)
  • Philip, ruler (1596–1596)
  • Edmond, ruler (1596–1601)
  • Eóghan Ó Ruairc, King (1500–1528)
  • Feidhlimidh Ó Ruairc, King (1528–1536)
  • Brian ballach mór Ó Ruairc, King (1528–1559, 1560–1562)
  • Tadhg Ó Ruairc, King (1559–1560)
  • Aodh gallda Ó Ruairc, King (1562–1564)
  • Aodh buidhe Ó Ruairc, King (1564–1566)
  • Brian O'Rourke, King (1566–1591)
  • Brian Oge O'Rourke, King (1591–1600)
  • Tadhg Ó Ruairc, Lord (1600–1605)
  • Cormac mac Diarmata, King (1499–1528)
  • Dermot an Einigh mac Diarmata, King (1528–1533)
  • Eoghan mac Diarmata, King (1533–1534)
  • Aedh na Ab mac Diarmata, King (1534–1549)
  • Ruaidri mac Diarmata, King (1549–1568)
  • Turlough mac Diarmata, King (1568–1576)
  • Tadhg mac Diarmata, King (1576–1585)

Europe: Central[edit]

  • Maximilian I, Emperor Elect (1508–1519), King (1486–1519)
  • Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (1530–1556), King (1519–1556)
  • Ferdinand I, Emperor Elect (1558–1564), King (1531–1564)
  • Maximilian II, Emperor Elect (1564–1576), King (1562–1576)
  • Rudolph II, Emperor Elect (1576–1612), King (1575–1612)

Austria

Habsburg monarchs ruled under numerous simultaneous titles

Hungary

Poland

Europe: East[edit]

Europe: Nordic[edit]

Kalmar Union

Denmark–Norway

Sweden

Europe: Southcentral[edit]

States of Italy in 1494.

Southern Italy

Malta

Europe: Southwest[edit]

Andorra

  • Catherine, French Co-Princess (1483–1512, 1513–1517)
  • Henry II, French Co-Prince (1517–1555)
  • Joan III, French Co-Princess (1555–1572)
  • Henry IV, French Co-Prince (1572–1610)

Navarre

Portugal

Spain

Europe: West[edit]

France

Low Countries

For the preceding rulers, look under the List of state leaders in the 16th-century Holy Roman Empire
For the preceding rulers, see the County of Drenthe under the List of state leaders in the 16th-century Holy Roman Empire
For the preceding rulers, see the Lordship of Frisia under the List of state leaders in the 16th-century Holy Roman Empire
For the preceding rulers, see the Lordship of Groningen under the List of state leaders in the 16th-century Holy Roman Empire
For the preceding rulers, see the Duchy of Guelders under the List of state leaders in the 16th-century Holy Roman Empire
For the preceding rulers, look under the List of state leaders in the 16th-century Holy Roman Empire
For the preceding rulers, see the Lordship of Overijssel under the List of state leaders in the 16th-century Holy Roman Empire

Eurasia: Caucasus[edit]

Azerbaijan

  • Huseyn Ali, Khan (1680–1721)

Georgia

rule by the Kingdom of Kartli (1513–1520)
  • Levan, King (1520–1574)
  • Alexander II (Ottoman vassal after 1578), King (1574–1602, 1602–1605)

Russia: Dagestan

  • Surkhay II ibn Chopan, Shamkhal (1605–1614)
  • Andia ibn Chopan, Shamkhal (1614–1623)
  • Eldar ibn Surkhay, Shamkhal (1623–1635)
  • Aidemir ibn Sultan Mahmud, Shamkhal (1635–1640)
  • Alibek II ibn Tuchilav, Khan (1642–1700)
  • Surkhay ibn Garai-Bek, Khan (1700–1741)

Oceania[edit]

Chile: Easter Island

  • Mahaki Tapu Vae Iti (Mahiki Tapuakiti), King (?)
  • Ngau-ka Te Mahaki or Tuu Koiho (Ko-Tuu-ihu?), King (?)
  • Anakena, King (?)
  • Hanga Rau, King (?)
  • Marama Ariki, King (c.1600)

Tonga

  • Kau Vaka'uta, King (?)
  • Siulangapō, King (?)
  • Vakalahi-Moheʻuli, King (c.1550)
  • Moʻunga ʻo Tonga, King (?)

United States: Hawaii

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Joyce (M.A.) & Torday (E.), Notes ethnographiques sur les peuples communément appelés Bakuba, ainsi que sur les peuplades apparentées, les Bushongo. Bruxelles 1910; page 17–19
  2. ^ Information about pre-Oromo kings from Werner J. Lange, History of the Southern Gonga (Southwestern Ethiopia), (Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner, 1982), pp. 28–30.
  3. ^ Werner J. Lange, History of the Southern Gonga (Southwestern Ethiopia) (Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner, 1982), p. 64.
  4. ^ C.F. Beckingham and G.W.B. Huntingford, Some Records of Ethiopia, 1593–1646 (London: Hakluyt Society, 1954), p. lvi. Amnon Orent, "Refocusing on the History of Kafa prior to 1897: A Discussion of Political Processes" in African Historical Studies, Vol. 3, No. 2. (1970), p. 268.
  5. ^ C.F. Beckingham and G.W.B. Huntingford, Some Records of Ethiopia, 1593–1646 (London: Hakluyt Society, 1954), pp. lxv – lxvii.
  6. ^ MacMichael, H. A. (1922). "Appendix I: The Chronology of the Fung Kings". A History of the Arabs in the Sudan and Some Account of the People Who Preceded Them and of the Tribes Inhabiting Dárfūr. Volume II. Cambridge University Press. p. 431. OCLC 264942362. |volume= has extra text (help)
  7. ^ Holt, Peter Malcolm (1999). "Genealogical Tables and King-Lists". The Sudan of the Three Niles: The Funj Chronicle 910–1288 / 1504–1871. Islamic History and Civilization, 26. Leiden: BRILL. pp. 182–186. ISBN 978-90-04-11256-8.
  8. ^ Ben-Amos (1995). The Art of Benin Revised Edition. p. 32.
  9. ^ Kâti 1913, p. 217
  10. ^ Hunwick 2003, pp. 336–337.
  11. ^ The Tarikh al-Sudan states that Askiya Nuh ruled for 7 years.
  12. ^ Dates calculated on the basis of Lange, Diwan, 77-94; id., Kingdoms, 552.
  13. ^ From now on dates follow Lange, Diwan, 80-94.
  14. ^ Ba, Abdou Bouri, « Essai sur l’histoire du Saloum et du Rip  » (avant-propos par Charles Becker et Victor Martin), Bulletin de l'IFAN, tome 38, série B, numéro 4, octobre 1976 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-04-15. Retrieved 2012-03-09.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  15. ^ a b c d "Ahuítzotl, "El espinoso del agua" (1486–1502)" [Ahuítzotl, "Thorny Water" (1486–1502)]. Archeologia Mexicana (in Spanish). Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  16. ^ "Juan Velázquez, 12th Aztec Emperor". Geni.com. February 11, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  17. ^ a b c d "Los gobernantes que siguieron a Moctezuma, Cuitláhuac y Cuahutémoc" [The governors of Mexico who followed Moctezuma, Cuitláhuac, and Cuauhtémoc]. El Bable (in Spanish). December 16, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  18. ^ "Cortes Meets Xicotencatl, Tlaxcala Chief". American Historical Association. Retrieved June 5, 2019.
  19. ^ "Zapotecs (Mesoamerica)". The History Files. Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  20. ^ Istmeño Oaxaqueño, Xhuncu (April 24, 2011). "COSIJOEZA Y COSIJOPÍ SICASIBI..REYES ZAPOTECAS!!!" [Cosijoeza and Cosijoi Sicasibi... Zapoteca Kings!]. Zapotecos del Mundo (in Spanish). Retrieved June 7, 2019.
  21. ^ "Tawantinsuyu / Emperors of the Incas". The History Files. Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  22. ^ L. Petech (1980), 'Ya-ts'e, Gu-ge, Pu-rang: A new study', The Central Asiatic Journal 24, pp. 85–111; R. Vitali (1996), The kingdoms of Gu.ge Pu.hrang. Dharamsala: Tho.ling gtsug.lag.khang.
  23. ^ Giuseppe Tucci, Tibetan Painted Scrolls. [Rome 1949; Giuseppe Tucci, Deb T'er Dmar Po Gsarma. Rome 1971; Per K. Sørensen & Guntram Hazod, Rulers on the Celestial Plain. Wien 2007; Olaf Czaja, Medieval rule in Tibet, Vol. I-II. Wien 2013.
  24. ^ Giuseppe Tucci, 1949; Giuseppe Tucci, 1971; Olaf Czaja, 2013.
  25. ^ Giuseppe Tucci, 1949; Hugh E. Richardson, A Short History of Tibet. New York 1962.
  26. ^ De Graaf & Pigeaud (1974), p. 156–68; Truhart (2003), p. 1235.
  27. ^ Arifin (1995); De Graaf & Pigeaud (1974), p. 192–8.
  28. ^ De Graaf & Pigeaud (1974), p. 179–84.
  29. ^ Hall (1981), p. 972; Stokvis, Sultan (1888); Truhart (2003), p. 1228–9..
  30. ^ Sutherland (1973–1974).
  31. ^ Nagtegaal (1995); Werdisastra (1996).
  32. ^ Coolhaas, W.Ph. (1923) "Kronijk van het rijk Batjan", Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 63.
  33. ^ The pedigree and chronology of the sultans is only partly known; see Schurhammer, F. (1973–1982) Francis Xavier; His Life, His Times, Vol. I–IV. Rome: Jesuit Historical Institute; Jacobs, Hubert (1974–1984) Documenta Malucensia, Vol. I–III. Rome: Jesuit Historical Society; Fraassen, c.van (1987) Ternate, de Molukken en de Indonesische Archipel. Leiden: Leiden University (PhD Thesis).
  34. ^ Katoppo, Elvianus (1957) Nuku, Sulthan Sadul Djehad Muhammad el Mabus Amirudin Sjah, Kaitjili Paparangan, Sulthan Tidore. Kilatmadju Bina Budhaja; Widjojo, Muridan (2009) The revolt of Prince Nuku: Cross-cultural alliance-making in Maluku, c.1780–1810. Leiden: Brill. The exact genealogy of the rulers before the mid-17th century is not known by the local historical tradition; for the known details, see Clercq, F.S.A. de (1890) Bijdragen tot de kennis der Residentie Ternate. Leiden: Brill.
  35. ^ de Aganduru Moriz, Rodrigo (1882). Historia general de las Islas Occidentales a la Asia adyacentes, llamadas Philipinas. Colección de Documentos inéditos para la historia de España, v.78–79. Madrid: Impr. de Miguel Ginesta.
  36. ^ Markó 2000, p. 110.
  37. ^ Barta 1994, pp. 252., 259-260.
  38. ^ a b Szegedi 2009, p. 101.
  39. ^ Markó 2000, pp. 99-100.
  40. ^ Barta 1994, pp. 260., 264-265.
  41. ^ Markó 2000, pp. 101-102.
  42. ^ Barta 1994, pp. 263., 293-297.
  43. ^ Markó 2000, pp. 97-98.
  44. ^ Barta 1994, pp. 295-296.
  45. ^ a b Barta 1994, p. 296.
  46. ^ Markó 2000, pp. 112-113.
  47. ^ Pop 2009, pp. 82-83.
  48. ^ Barta 1994, p. 297.
  49. ^ Norwich, John J. (1983). A History of Venice. Penguin Books. p. 363. ISBN 0140066233.